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( mms ) :
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/02/2011

مُساهمةموضوع: هنا تجد كل القواعد    الجمعة فبراير 11, 2011 11:32 am

هنا تلخيص بعض قواعد اللغة الانجليزية


Grammar
After ماض تام ماض بسيط
As soon as ( had + p . p )التصريف الثاني
Until / till


After he had done his homework , he went to bed .
ماضي بسيط منفي until – ماض تام
He didn’t go to bed until he had done his bed .





Before

By the time ماضى تام- ماض بسيط
When


Before he went to bed , he had done his homework
Or : He had done his homework before he went to bed .
ماض تام وأحيانا يأتي بعدها ماض بسيط ، علي حسب المعني when ملحوظة أحيانا يأتي بعد
No sooner فعل مساعد + فاعل + فعل than الجمله الثانيه
No sooner had the father come than the children switched off the T. V
= The father had no sooner come than the children ………….

No sooner ترتيب سؤال than الجملة الثانية
Hardly ترتيب سؤال when الجملة الثانية
Scarcely ترتيب سؤال when الجملة الثانية

Not only ترتيب سؤال but لكنالجملة الثانية also


Too
As well
Not only did he succeed but he got high marks as well .
He not only succeeded but he got high marks as well .

مضارع تام Since ماض بسيط
مضارع تام مستمرما يشير للماضي
I last saw her when I was in Alex . ( since )
I haven’t seen her since I was in Alex
He began studying English at 3o’clock and he is still studying it ( since )
He has been studying English since 3 o’clock .



Since 1998 تورايخ
Last week
Yesterday
2 o’clock

Forيأتي بعدها فترة زمنية محددة 5 years
A week
A day
Six hours

While ماض بسيط – ماض
As was
Just as were + V-ing

While they were watching the film , the light went out .





During V- ing
Noun
During watching the film ,the light went out.
During the film ,the light went out.

When ماضى بسيطماض مستمر-
When the light went out, they were watching T. V.

Zero conditional
If + مضارع بسيطمضارع بسيط
If we boil water , it evaporates
 تستخدم الحالة الصفرية للتعبير عن الحقائق .


الحاله الأولى

1- if + مضارع بسيطwill +المصدر
Can
May
If you study hard, you will succeed .
If the team plays well , it will win .
 تستخدم الحالة الأولي لـif إذا كان أحد الجملتين المطلوب ربطها مستقبل
He will come . Then, I’ll leave ( if ) .
If he comes, I will leave .


2- if + ماض بسيط would + المصدر
Could
Might
If he were strong , he would lift the box .
If I knew his address, I’d visit him .
 تستخدم الحالة الثانية إذا كان زمن الجملتين مضارع .


I don’t have money .I want to buy a car.
= If I had money , I would buy a car
If I were a bird, I’d fly .
الحاله الثالثه
3) If + ماض تام would + have + p.p
Could
Might
 تستخدم الحالة الثالثة إذا كان زمن أحد الجملتين في الماضي .
He didn’t see his friends as he didn’t come to the party .(If)
If he had come to the party , he would have met his friends .
He didn’t have money to buy the car.(If)
If had had money , he would have bought the car .
Unless = if not

 تنطبق علي unless نفس حالات if ولكن يأتي بعدها جملة مثبته لأن معناها منفي
If you don’t study you will fail .
= Unless you study, you will fail.
 إذا حلت unless محل if المنفية تحذف if والنفي
If he doesn’t study ,he will fail.
= Unless he studies, he’ll fail. لاحظ If he didn’t study ,he wouldn’t fail.
= Unless he studied, he wouldn’t fail.
 أحيانا نضع had مكان If في الحالة الثالثة .
Were مكان if في الحالة الثانية .
If he had played = Had he played .
If I were you = Were I you .
 تحل unless مكان if المثبتة فيبقي الإثبات كما هو وننفي الجملة الأخرى .
If you study hard , you will succeed .
= Unless you study hard , you won’t succeed .



In case of فى حالة V – ing
Noun


if محل in case of تحل
If he is ill, he won’t go to work .
In case of being ill, he won’t go to work.
Or : in case of his illness ,……………. .
But for لولا v- ing
Without بدون noun تحلا محل unless
Unless we had got the River Nile, we would have died.
But for having the River Nile,we would have died.
But for the River Nile,………………………
If it weren’t for v- ing لولا

If it hadn’t been for noun ( unless تحل محل)
Active and Passive
 تتكون الجملة المعلوم من .
 مفعول + فعل + فاعل .
He plays football
She watched T .V
 تتكون الجملة المجهول من
Be + P.P + المفعول
Football is played .


T . V was watched .
Passive

مضارع بسيط am
is +P.P
are
مضارع مستمر am
is + being + P.P
are
مضارع تام have
has + been + P.P
ماضي بسيط was


were + P.P
ماض مستمر was
were + being + P.P
ماض تام had + been + P.P
مستقبل بسيطwill + be + P.P
الأفعال الناقصة can + be + P.P
might + be + PP
He is writing a lesson = A lesson is being written .


They have *****d lunch = Lunch has been *****d .



Although جملة كاملة
Though تكملة + فعل + فاعل
Even though

Although he is strong, he can’t carry the box.
Although she studied hard ,she didn’t get high marks .
However صفة+فعل + فاعل


حال
However strong he is ,he can’t carry the box
However hard she studied ,she didn’t succeed

Despite

In sprite of v- ing
Noun
Despite being strong,………………


Despite his strength,………………..



Because جمل كاملة
Since
As
He didn’t come to school as he was ill .
Because of
Due to شبة جملة
Owing to
Because of being ill ,he didn’t go to school.


Because of his illness ,……………………..
To
In order to المصدر
So as to


جملة كاملة بها فعل ناقص

مضارع ماض
Can- maycould - might




So that

In order that




so that فاعل + + فعل ناقص + فعل أساسي
He goes to school in order to learn. ( so that )
He goes to school so that he can learn
We went to the cinema to watch the film ( so that )
we went to the cinema so that we could see the film.


******************************
prefer v-ing to v- ing
noun noun

I prefer playing football to playing tennis .
I prefer football to tennis .
Would rather to مصدر بدون than toمصدر بدون
I’d rather play football than play tennis.



Direct and indirect

المباشر وغير المباشر
الجملة



استفهامية امرية خبرية

تبدأ بأداة تبدأ بفعل تبدأ بالفاعل تبدأ تبدأ بالفاعل
استفهام مساعد بـ Don'tHe went home

الجملة الخبرية

عند تحويل الجملة الخبرية من مباشر إلي غير مباشر نتبع التالي :-
1-

told تحول إلي said to
2- تحذف الأقواس وتربط بكلمة that ( أولا تربط بها )
3- تغير الضمائر ونرفع الزمن درجة
ماض بسيط مضارع بسيط
ماض مستمر مضارع مستمر
ماض تام مضارع تام
ماض تام ماض بسيط.

See you on the top


Will would
Am- is -are was / were
Have- has had
Must be must have been
May be may have been
Today that day
Tonight that night
Now then


Tomorrow the day after
Yester day the day before
Next week the week after
Last year the week before
This that
These those
Here there
Ago be fore

He said” I am ill. “
He said that he was ill .
She said to me “I have a car .“
She told me she had a car.
They said to us “We’ll visit you tomorrow.”
They told us they would visit us the day after .

الجملة الأمرية

عند تحويل الجمل الأمرية تتبع الأتي :-
Said to told


Asked
Advised
Advised
Ordered
2- تربط بـ to إذا بدأت الجملة بفعل
Not to إذا بدأت الجملة بـDon't
3- تغير الضمائر علي حسب المتكلم والمخاطب.

Examples

He said “come to visit me next week “
He told ( asked ) me to go to visit him the week after .


ملحوظة

 يحول فعل come إلى go في الكلام غير المباشر .
She said,” Give up smoking.”
She advised me to give up smoking.
He said “Don’t forget me”
He asked me not to forget him .
الجملة الاستفهامية
 عند تحويل الجملة الاستفهامية ( السؤال ) إلى غير مباشر .
Said asked
Wanted to know
يتساءل wondered
2- تحذف الأقواس وتربط بأداة الاستفهام إذا بدأ السؤال بأداة الاستفهام ، وتربط بـ if أو whether إذا بدأ السؤال بفعل مساعد ، ويأتي بعد أداة الاستفهام أوالفعل المساعد جملة كاملة (تكمله + فعل + فاعل)
3- تغير الضمائر وترفع الزمن درجة

He said to me ,” When will you travel ?”


He asked me when I would travel
She said,” What is the matter, Aly ?”
She asked Aly what the matter was
Ola Said “Do you have a car , Ahmed ?”
Ola asked Ahmed if he had a car.
They asked us “Have you played tennis ?”
They asked us if we had played tennis.
He said,” Did you sleep well yesterday ?”
He asked me if I had slept well the day before .
Allow + to +المصدر
Let + to المصدر بدون


Make + to المصدر بدون
He allowed me to go.
He let me go.
Deduction
الاستنتاج
المضارع الماضى
أكيد must be must have _ p.p
احتمال may be may have p.p
احتمال ضعيفmight be might have + p.p
استحالة can’t be can’t have p.p
I’m sure he is a doctor. (must)
He must be a doctor
I think they came yesterday . ( must)
They must have come yesterday.
Certainly they didn’t visit us .We were at home all day. (can’t)
They can’t have visited us
He probably did it . ( might )


He might have done it
She possibly traveled abroad. ( may )
She may have traveled abroad

If = Provided that بشرط أن
= as long as طالما
If you don’t study , you’ll fail .(provided)
You won’t fail provided you study .
Unless you hurt the dog, it will not bite you . (as long as )
As long as you don’t hurt the dog, it won’t bite you
Unless you play well, you won’t win ( provided )
You will win provided that you play well.
Unless you come, I’ll be angry ( provided )


I’ll not be angry provided you come .

Should + المصدر
المضارع Ought to + المصدر
Be (am-is are) + supposed to + المصدر

Should + have + p.p
الماضي Ought to + have + p.p
Be (was-were) + supposed to + المصدر


Examples:
He should study hard. (supposed).
He is supposed to study hard.
She ought to have come. (supposed)
She was supposed to come .
They should have been polite .(supposed)
They were supposed to be polite .
Don’t do that again . (supposed)
You aren’t supposed to do that again.




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